Pathological jaundice may show in the first 24 hours of the baby’s life, and main reasons for this disease are hemolytic disease, Crigler-Najjar syndrome, sepsis, hypoxia, hipoklikemija. Physiological jaundice may appear between second and fourth day of life and may last for 7-8 days. Babies that are born premature may catch jaundice towards the end of the fist week from their lives and it may last up to two weeks.
Hyperbilirubinemia is a state when bilirubin in the blood is increased and may be causes from many reasons starting with physiological immaturity of the liver in the newborn up to bad diseases of the liver which may lead to putting in danger the life of the child.
Most frequent causes
Many diseases and pathological states may be caused by disorder of one or more phases of bilirubin in the metabolism and it may lead to hyperbilirubinemia and jaundice which may be unconjugated and conjugated. The former is characterized with increased levels of uncojungated bilirubin in the blood. The later in characterized with increased levels of conjugated bilirubin and always pathological jaundice is a result of congenital or learned disorders in secreting uncojugated bilirubin from hepatocytes into the bile ducts or a disturbance in the leak of bile through the bile ducts. In this type of jaundice leftover from bilirubin may be found found in urine or feces with light color.
Pathological and physiological jaundice
Unconjugated jaundice may be pathological and physiological jaundice. Pathological jaundice may be found in newborns and it is very important to be discovered on time and to differentiate from physiological jaundice. Pathological jaundice may appear in the first 24 hours from baby’s life and the level of unconjugated bilirubin is more than 200 micro moles and in the case of premature born babies bilirubin is more than 255 micro moles. Jaundice lasts for more than 7-8 days and in the case of premature born babies more than two weeks.
There are many reasons why babies catch pathological jaundice (hemolytic disease, Crigler-Najjar syndrome, sepsis, hypoxia, hipoklikemija and others).
When it comes to hyperbilirubinemia in a case of a newborn it is the case of uncojugated physiological jaundice. With giving birth we stop the function of the mat so the liver of the newborn takes many vital functions which previously were done by the mother’s liver. In the first days and weeks of the life of the newborn there is a vital adaptation to the living conditions and the liver is still immature for all of that.
The most common reason for physiological jaundice is the increased level of bilirubin due to the short life of the erythrocytes in the newborn organism and there is a imbalance of its transfer to the liver as well as the ability for its conjugation is decreased so there is greater absorption of bilirubin in the blood.
Premature born babies are prone to more serious jaundice
Premature born babies and babies with some infection are more prone to jaundice because they have problems with adaptation. Mothers with low Ph sensitivity are prone to jaundice too. Mothers with negative Ph who gave birth to Ph positive babies and were not properly protected and mothers who are O blood group who gave birth to babies with another blood group have faster dissolution of erythrocytes and have greater amount of bilirubin in their blood which means that they are more prone to getting jaundice.
When jaundice is dangerous?
If it comes to increasing of the levels of bilirubin in blood they baby may become drowsy and there will be some changes in the baby’s well being. High levels of bilirubin may lead to brain damages from minimal disorders to serious illnesses which fortunately are rare if the level of bilirubin is followed and controlled by doctors.